This is a rare hereditary disease (Colorectal Surgery) of the colon indicated with multiple polyps all over the colon. This condition requires complete removal of the colon and rectum as it has a high malignant potential. The continuity of bowel is restored by performing an ileo-anal pouch.
An inflammatory disease of the large bowel, ulcerative colitis varies in severity. Ascends towards the caecum, it usually starts from the rectum. In India, most of the patients suffer from a milder form of ulcerative colitis that is localized to the left colon and can be subsidized with oral medication.
Some of the patients with severe symptoms are present in the emergency ward. They require hospitalization and sometimes surgery for conditions like ‘toxic megacolon’, massive lower GI bleeding etc. Surgery will involve total colectomy with ileostomy.
Elective surgery for extensive ulcerative colitis(Colorectal Surgery) or pancolitis or cancer in a setting of ulcerative colitis will include removal of the entire colon and rectum called “total procto-colectomy” and the normal continuity is restored by creating an ‘ileo-anal pouch’. This procedure generally avoids an ielostomy.
Diverticulitis is a condition which is common in old people. In old people, areas of weakness develop in the sigmoid and ascending colon result in localized ballooning of colonic mucosa called diverticulosis. Diverticulitis is the condition that results due to infection and inflammation of the diverticuli. This condition if present with colonic obstruction, colo-vesical fistula or uncontrollable bleeding, require surgery. Surgery will be in the form of resecting the involved segment and anastomosis.
Cancer is one of the common diseases of the colon and rectum. It can also affect any part of the large bowel. The primary treatment involves surgical removal of the cancer. In rectal cancers, complete removal of the rectal apparatus with a permanent end colostomy is done. In some of the cases of rectal cancers, surgical staplers are used for preserving anal sphincter mechanism. Cancers of the colon will require removal of a part of the colon called Right or Left hemi-colectomy